CHAMBER OF THE HOLOCAUST – MT. ZION – JERUSALEM

Something happened to me yesterday that I do not understand.  The best explanation is, as my friend Joyce Klein told me: “sometimes these things just happen in Jerusalem.”    You must read to the end to discover the “thing” that happened.

*****

It was my last day in Jerusalem, topping off a two-week visit.  I took a walk to the Old City and as I ascended the path to Zion Gate, one of the entrances to the Old City, I remembered an article that I read in Moment Magazine several months ago.  It described the oldest Holocaust Memorial, erected in 1948.  It is on Mount Zion, where I was walking.

Well, I decided not to turn left into the Old City, but rather, to turn right and explore the winding stone paths of Mount Zion.  I had no idea where the memorial was, but it could not hurt to explore.  I descended some steps and walked through low stone arches to reach King David’s tomb.  Then I walked up some stairs into a room that where Jesus’s last supper took place.  Across the courtyard, I saw the entrance to the Diaspora Yeshiva, whose famous band I loved as a teenager.  It was a rather eclectic tourist experience.

Then I walked through some more arched pathways, out into an open space, with sunlight shining on the Jerusalem stones.  There I saw a sign (see above picture):

Chamber of the Holocaust

I had found it.  I again descended some stairs, entering a low doorway.  There, sat a woman with a scarf covering her hair, sitting behind a small wooden desk.  I saw a sign – “Entrance fee – 10 Shekel.”   I fished in my purse for a 10 Shekel coin, gave it to the woman who, without saying a word, handed me a small pamphlet in Hebrew.   I thanked her and walked through a low, narrow, arched doorway into the first, cave-like room.  The lighting was muted, creating a feeling of dread.  I was unsure as to what I was about to experience.

In this first room, there were plaques on the wall, each with a name of a city or town whose Jews were murdered during the Shoah.  There were also two display cases on the ground with glass tops.  Looking in, I could see Torah scrolls that had been partially burned by the Nazis.

chamber-of-the-holocaust-burnt-torah-scroll

I walked through another narrow, arched doorway into a larger space, that was a bit lighter.   This room had the same type of memorial plaques — covering almost every inch of the walls, each with the name of a different city or town.  There were a few exhibits set up around the room. I approached to see what they were.  One of them held lamp shades, bags and wallets made from Torah parchment.   It was a jarring sight.

Another display case contained a prisoner uniform from Auschwitz.

chamber-of-the-holocaust-auschwitz-uniform

On the opposite side of the room was another burned Torah scroll. But the coloring of the parchment was strange; it had a reddish tint.  I read the description: “Remnants of a Torah Scroll saturated with the blood of Kedoshim [Holy Ones] murdered in Wagrow, Poland.” [This is Wegrow — 23 kilometers southeast of Stoczek!].  That sent shivers down my spine.

chamber-of-the-holocaust-blood-stained-torah

Then, I came to one of the most powerful Holocaust artifacts I have ever seen.  It is a jacket made of the parchment of a Torah scroll.   If you look closely, you can see that the section of the Torah that is on the front part of the jacket is from Haazinu in Deuteronomy.  You can tell because of the width of the columns are thinner, leaving some white space.   If you look even closer, you can see that the verses that are sewn just where the human heart would be, were the versus about vengeance.  Though the Nazis forced a Jewish tailor to make this jacket, the Jewish tailor knew what he was doing.  The inscription on the display case says this is a “Meil Nekama – Coat of Revenge.”

chamber-of-the-holocaust-jacket-torah-parchment

On the wall of this room, I found the memorial plaque for Slonim.  This is the place that Esther’s family was murdered in the summer of 1941.

chamber-of-the-holocaust-slonim-plaque

The next room I entered was very small.  There were a few Yartzheit (memorial) candles burning here.  The prominent feature was a stone wall with small arched openings made to resemble the shape of the ovens in the crematoria used to burn the bodies of the Jews after they were gassed.   Hanging in front of the wall was a black iron basket that looks like it should hold a Ner Tamid – eternal light, but it was empty.  However, the iron basket cast a menacing shadow on the crematoria shaped stones.

chamber-of-the-holocaust-ovens

This room was creepy and I was happy to exit out into a courtyard where sun was shining and no ovens were awaiting me.  The courtyard was filled with even more memorial plaques.   In all, there are 2,000 plaques in these chambers.  I looked for a plaque with Stoczek, but I could not find one.   But I did find a plaque with the name Ostrow Mavitzyetka.  This was the big town near both Bagatele and Stoczek.  I stood in the courtyard looking at all the plaques thinking of the millions of murdered Jews that they represent.

Then, I looked at my watch and realized that I should be heading back to finish my packing.  I looked out of the courtyard, through an iron gate that was locked.  I saw the back of a young man who was holding a phone to his ear.  I said to myself – “that looks like Akiva Greenberg.”  Akiva was a classmate of my daughter, Esther.  He is in Israel for a gap year, studying in a Yeshiva in Modin, about 30 minutes outside of Jerusalem.   As he turned a bit and I could see his face, I realized that it was indeed Akiva.  I called out his name and he turned and saw me.  He looked shocked and said:

“Karen! I can’t believe it.  I was just calling you.”

“Why?” I asked.

“Just wait here a minute, don’t move.  I’ll be right back,” he said.

In 30 seconds he was back, standing just on the other side of the iron gate.  But he had an adult with him.  He said to him – “this is Karen Treiger -she is right here.”

I looked perplexed at these two excited faces, not understanding what this was all about.

The adult was Tzvi Shiloni, who is taking a group of boys to Poland at the end of March.  He had brought the boys to the Chamber of the Holocaust to begin to educate and prepare them for the trip.  He began to explain that he asked Akiva to contact me because he wanted to talk with me about my blog.

“Hold on,” I said, “let’s not talk through these bars, I will come out to meet you.”

So now, face to face, he told me that three days ago, on Shabbat, he was speaking to a friend who also leads tours in Poland.  This friend told him that during the previous week he and a few other tour guides had met me and that I am writing a book about my in-laws’ experience in the Holocaust.  I had explained to the group of tour guides why I think that Sam and Esther’s story would be a meaningful addition to a tour in the Treblinka area.

“So, after Shabbat I looked up your blog,” explained Tzvi.   “I read the whole thing – start to finish.  I knew after I finished that I had to find you and ask you if there is any way I can take this group of boys to see the barn and the pit where Sam and Esther hid.  When Akiva told me he was from Seattle, I asked him if he knows Karen Treiger.  He said, ‘of course – she is the mother of my friend Esther.’”

Akiva knew I was in Jerusalem because he and Esther had been in touch.  He was trying to call me at the moment that I saw him standing by the tree.  And then he heard his name being called, he turned around and there I was, behind the iron gate. Crazy!

None of us could really believe what just happened.  Tzvi asked an old bearded man who was standing around, to take our picture.  He used Akiva’s phone for the group picture.  I hope Akiva sends it to me.

I promised to be in touch with Tzvi and to contact the Stys family about his upcoming trip.  This could be the first tours that incorporate Sam and Esther’s story into their Poland visit.

“Sometimes these things just happen in Jerusalem.”

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STYS FAMILY – YAD VASHEM DECISION TO BE MADE SOON

NOTE TO READER: 

It has come to my attention that when my blog post is received as an e-mail, that the pictures do not arrive with the text.  If you click on the title of the blog post (in blue), it will quickly take you to the blog itself and you can see the pictures that accompany the text.  Sorry for any confusion.    Karen

 

FEBRUARY 16, 2017: REPORTING FROM JERUSALEM, ISRAEL

I traveled to Jerusalem to attend the wedding of Mishael Silver and Tali Nahir.  It was indeed a joyous and meaningful ceremony and I danced the night away.  While I am here I had a meeting with Irena Steinfeldt, the Director of Righteous Among the Nations Department at Yad Vashem.    I thank Irena for taking the time to speak to me and explain the process employed to decide who shall be awarded the status of “Righteous Among the Nations.”

The good news is that the file of the Stys family who helped Sam and Esther while they were in hiding, is currently being evaluated.  (see above picture outside the barn where Sam and Esther hid during the winter months) We should have an answer soon.

The department that Irena heads has ten employees.  They speak many languages and work to prepare a file on the nominated individual(s) or family.  They review the information provided and often do additional research.  Once the file is prepared, it passes to a commission, made up of volunteers who are survivors of the Holocaust.  One member of the commission, who knows the relevant language (in our case – Polish) takes the lead and reads through the file.  He or she may ask for additional information if they feel it is needed.

The commission then meets and the lead investigator reports to the group.  The other members of the commission may ask questions and then a discussion ensues.   A decision is made and then the file goes to the Head of the Commission, retired Israeli Supreme Court Justice, Jacob (Yaakov) Turkel.  He has the last word.  He assesses the file for both content and procedure.   Once he makes his decision, Yad Vashem is informed and the announcement is made.

After the announcement is made, an award ceremony is planned to bestow a hand-caligraphied certificate (the calligraphy is done by a survivor) and an engraved medal on the individual(s) or family.   I was hoping that once the announcement about the Stys family is made that the ceremony would take place quickly, as the remaining two Stys children are in their 80’s.  But it seems that it can take a few months before the ceremony occurs.

Assuming the answer from Yad Vashem is positive, the ceremony will take place at the Israeli Embassy in Warsaw. Either the Israeli Ambassador or the Deputy Ambassador will make the presentation.

I hope to be there.

JUDENRAT -EICHMANN’S BRAIN CHILD

     “Round up 135 able bodied men and deliver them to the town square.”

This order was issued to the Judenrat of Stoczek by the Nazis in June of 1942.

Those who worked for the Judenrat — the Jewish Council and the Jewish Police — believed that by doing the Nazi’s bidding, they were saving themselves and their families.  So, they obeyed, capturing 135 men who were forced onto trucks and driven to Treblinka to build the camp.  Sam Goldberg was caught in this round up, resulting in a 13-month sentence at a place where 870,000 were murdered.

Sam never held a grudge against the Judenrat.

“I don’t blame them,” he said, “they were forced to do it.”

The Judenrat became a fixture in Jewish towns and ghettos.  Under the thumb of the Nazis they were forced to organize the Jewish community and deliver specified numbers of Jews for the Nazi “resettlement” program.  How and where did the Judenrat get started?  I believe I have stumbled upon an answer in David Cesarani’s new book:  Final Solution: The Fate of the Jews 1933-1949.

Cesarani describes Hitler’s take-over of Austria in 1938.  Immediately upon taking control, members of the Austrian Nazi party began to attack Jews and loot their shops:

“A reign of terror descended on the city’s Jewish inhabitants that exceeded anything experienced by Jews in Germany.  In the words of the playwright Carl Zuckermayer, ‘That night all hell broke loose. The netherworld had opened its portals and spewed out its basest, most horrid, and filthiest spirits.  The city changed into a nightmare painting reminiscent of Hieronymous Bosch. . . .’” (Cesarani at 148)

This violence was not wrought by the Germans, but rather by Austrians:  “What was being unleashed here was the revolt of envy; malevolence; bitterness; blind, vicious vengefulness – all other voices were condemned to silence.” (Id. at 148)

Cesarani continues: “Hitler’s triumphal entry into Vienna on the afternoon of 14 March and his speech on the Heldenplatz the following morning drew vast crowds onto the streets.  Ruth Maier, a Jewish schoolgirl who had just turned eighteen, recalled the scenes in her diary.  ‘All the Austrians were celebrating and jumping about in excitement.  Flags were hoisted, people hugged and kissed each other in sheer joy.’” (Id. at 149)

This chaos led to the inability to fulfill one of the stated goals of the Nazi party in 1938:  the emigration of all Jews from lands controlled by the Reich.  The Austrian Jewish communal organizations that could facilitate such emigration were torn asunder by the violence.  The leaders were killed or thrown in jail.

Enter Adolf Eichmann.

Amidst the pandemonium, he saw opportunity.   He pulled the leaders of the Jewish community out of prison and determined which one was best suited to do his bidding.  He chose Joseph Lowenherz, who had an energetic, forceful personality.  Eichmann tasked Lowenherz to put together a list of Jewish communal organizations needed to create opportunities for Jews to emigrate.

With the approval of his boss, Reinhard Heydrich, Eichmann reestablished essential offices and personnel under the umbrella of the Jewish community to facilitate the rapid emigration of the Jews of Austria.  “Crucially,” Cesarani explains, “the Jewish organizations would operate under the supervision of the SD.” (153) The SD was the intelligence agency of the SS and a sister agency of the Gestapo.

Eichmann thus created the first Judenrat – a group of Jews who organize other Jews to achieve Nazi aims.

“Eichmann,” Cesarani concludes, “thereby achieved a dramatic accretion to the power of the Sipo-SD.  He had been sent to Vienna with modest executive powers that extended little further than organizing the arrest of some Jews.  But through the guise of furthering Jewish emigration he ended up controlling the destiny of the entire Jewish population.  Probably without even realizing it he showed how Heydrich and the security apparatus could create a domain over which they ruled unchallenged simply by gaining the right to implement SD policy.  The Jews may even have contributed to this forward leap by embracing cooperaWihtion with the SD, if only on the grounds that Eichmann seemed genuinely interested in establishing order and helping them to escape the madhouse that the Austrian Nazis had created.”  (Id. at 153).

Eichmann was just following orders.